The Munda Dictionary Project


The data for this dictionary were collected from published and non-published sources and typed by Tim Witte under the guidance of John Peterson, both of the University of Kiel, Germany. The following sources form the basis of the entries in the lexicon, some of which were slightly modified with respect to spelling to conform to the guidelines used in other Munda lexica:
· Anderson, Gregory D.S. & K. David Harrison. 2008. “Sora.” In: Gregory D.S. Anderson (ed.), The Munda Languages. London / New York. [Routledge Language Family Series]. 299-380.
· Ramamurti, G.V. 1938 [Reprint: 1986]. Sora - English dictionary. New Delhi: Mittal

This online Sora lexicon lays no claim to originality of content.

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Combining forms: The nominal combining forms which are mentioned in the lexicon are monosyllabic forms of the corresponding nouns. Those are used in compounds: "Sora makes extensive use of root/stem-compounds and lexicalized derivational elements in the creation of its nominal lexicon. At the heart of this is the use of combination with a set of largely monosyllabic combining forms or nominal roots and a host of compounding and derivational processes that serve to derive inflectable free-standing syntactic elements or words/noun phrases." (Anderson & Harrison 2008: 321)
There is considerable uncertainty regarding the phonetic values of the graphemes used in the different sources on Sora. We have chosen to use distinct symbols for all the graphemes of the differet sources, so that the reader of this dictionary must decide for him-/herself which paradigm to follow. The most significant example of this is the use of the grapheme < j >. Anderson & Harrison (2008) refer to < j > as a voiced palatal obstruent. On the other hand, G.V. Ramamurti (1938) makes a distinction between < j >, which he views as a "palatal continuant", and <ɟ> which he considers a "voiced palatal sound", probably refering to the fricative [ʝ]. In this dictionary the grapheme < j > is used as the palatal obstruent mentioned by Anderson & Harrison, and Ramamurti's graphemes have been changed, so that the forms can all be distinguished from one another. We have chosen to use the phonetically motivated, but still arbitrary, signs <ç> for Ramamurti's < j > and <ʝ> for Ramamurti's <ɟ>.
There are also a number of open questions regarding the vowel system of Sora: An eight-vowel system is mentioned by Anderson & Harrison (2008: 301), containing the vowels [ə] [a] [o] [i] [u] [e] [ɨ] [ʊ]. This seems to be accurate but there are a number of signs found in other sources which may or may not be allophonic variations, such as the grapheme < ü > which is used by Rammamurti for the "unrounded [u] sound". Ramamurti also makes a distinction between short, half-long and long vowels while Anderson & Harrison (2008) say that "vowel length is (probably) not phonemic in Sora". Since there are as yet no extensive phonetic studies on Sora, these signs have not altered here (with the exception that half-long vowels have been changed to long vowels), reflecting the conventions used in these sources.

More information about Sora:
· Glottolog
· Ethnologue